Causes of Basement Floor Cracks and What to Do About Them
Worried about a crack in your basement floor? Use this quick guide (with pictures) to determine whether or not the cracks in your basement floor require attention.
Basement floor cracks can let in water, moisture, and radon gas.
Cracks in the basement floor can be a cause of panic for homeowners. The good news is most concrete floor cracks are normal and don’t need to be repaired. However, some cracks in the basement floor can let in water, moisture, and dangerous soil gasses (including radon). This guide with visual examples can help you understand what the cracks in your concrete basement floor mean and whether or not they should be repaired.
Why do basement floors crack?
It’s common for cracks to form in a home’s foundation after it’s built. Most times, the cracks are normal, non-structural settlement cracks. However, there are many reasons a foundation cracks, such as the home's settling, concrete shrinkage and curing, stress, and poor construction.
How's your drainage?
If the soil around the foundation is poorly graded or you have improper drainage, water can build up and put pressure (referred to as hydrostatic pressure) on the foundation, causing it to crack. You can take simple steps to relieve hydrostatic pressure and help prevent cracks in your basement.
Ways to improve drainage:
- Make sure landscaping is properly graded and slopes away from the foundation.
- Keep your gutters clean and in good working condition. Install gutters and downspouts if you don’t have them.
- Extend your downspouts away from the house to keep them from dumping water close to the foundation walls.
- Add interior perimeter drainage and a good sump pump system in the basement.
If you have a crack in your concrete basement floor, determine the type of crack and what’s caused it to figure out how to best solve your problem.
6 types of concrete floor cracks - and what they mean
Cracks with heaving are signs of a bigger problem that needs to be addressed.
Heaving is common where there's clay soil.
When a basement floor crack is combined with heaving, this is a cause for concern. Heaving suggests that the soil beneath the basement floor is expanding. Heaving is especially common in areas with clay soil. The soil creates enough pressure to lift and crack a concrete slab floor when it becomes wet.
What to Do: Call a professional foundation repair contractor. They can assess the situation and recommend the best solution.
Concrete floors with cracks and sinking should be leveled.
Settlement causes uneven, cracked concrete floors. (Photo: Supportworks)
When a foundation settles, the concrete slab can crack, and the part of the slab that's less supported sinks into the depression. The resulting uneven, cracked concrete floor surface can create a tripping hazard.
What to Do: Uneven concrete floors should be leveled. PolyLevel uses a high-density polyurethane formula to lift and stabilize a sinking concrete slab permanently. Penny-sized holes are drilled into the slab, and a structural-grade polymer is injected into the void. The polyurethane material expands, lifting and leveling the slab.
The gap between the basement wall and the floor shouldn't be sealed.
Water seepage at the cove joint is a common problem.
The area in the basement where the walls and floor meet (called the cove joint) is a common problem for water seepage. During construction, when the concrete walls and floor are poured, a small gap is left between the floor and walls. When the groundwater level rises, and the soil becomes saturated, hydrostatic pressure forces water through the cove joint.
What to Do: Sealing the gap isn't recommended since the sealant can crack. The most effective solution to keep water and moisture out of the cove joint is a basement waterproofing system (interior drain tile and a sump pump), which helps relieve hydrostatic pressure.
Hairline cracks don’t require repair.
Hairline concrete floor cracks are caused by shrinkage as the concrete dries.
Small cracks in a concrete floor commonly result from shrinkage as the concrete dries, which pulls the concrete apart. These cracks can show up as long as a year after the concrete basement floor is poured, depending on how quickly the slab dries and how humid the basement is.
What to Do: Nothing. Hairline cracks in the basement floor are superficial and don’t require repair. You can hide the cracks with the right flooring solution. The best basement flooring options are ones that won't get moldy or deteriorate when exposed to moisture. Basement Systems offers special subflooring and waterproof basement flooring products designed for installation in a basement, whether the space is used for a living area, laundry room, playroom, or home gym.
1/8-inch or wider cracks should be sealed.
Cracks 1/8-inch or wider should be sealed. (Photo: Supportworks)
Like hairline cracks, these slightly wider cracks are likely the result of shrinkage and are not a sign of a serious foundation problem. However, even small cracks in the basement floor can allow water, moisture, and radon to enter the basement.
What to Do: Cracks wider than ⅛-inch should be sealed to help keep water, moisture, soil smells, and radon gas from seeping through the basement floor.
Spalling or flaking is ugly but doesn’t require repair.
Spalling concrete is unattractive, but usually not cause for concern.
It can occur when the concrete mix is too wet or hasn’t been properly cured. The water evaporates and loosens the top layer of the concrete, causing it to flake off. Concrete spalling is unattractive, but chances are the slab is still in good shape.
What to Do: Don’t try to hide the problem with paint. The surface of the floor is likely to keep flaking; when it does, it will take the paint off too. Consider concrete resurfacing to make the concrete look new and prevent future spalling. Another option is to install waterproof flooring over the concrete.
Some concrete floor cracking is normal, while other cracks in the basement floors indicate an underlying problem. For peace of mind, have your cracked concrete floors looked at by a professional, especially if you notice signs of water intrusion in the basement. Get help with basement floor crack repair by scheduling a free inspection and estimate with your local Basement Systems contractor.
Updated: October 11, 2022